UCAT Verbal Reasoning Practice Test 2022 (44 Questions Answers)

UCAT Verbal Reasoning Practice Test 2022 (44 Questions Answers): You can also download UCAT Verbal Reasoning  Question Bank in PDF format. Try our free original University Clinical Aptitude Test (UCAT) exam test prep for the UK, Australia and New Zealand.

Section 1 of the UCAT is the verbal reasoning subtest. It tests your ability to quickly read a passage, and information that is relevant and then analyse statements related to the passage. There are 44 questions to answer and in 21 minutes, so you have just under 30 seconds per question. As with all UKCAT sections, you have one minute to read the instructions. The idea is that this tests both your language ability and your ability to make decisions, traits which are important in a good doctor.

UCAT Verbal Reasoning Practice Test 2022 (44 Questions Answers)

UCAT Verbal Reasoning Practice Test

You are presented with a passage, upon which you answer questions. Typically, there are 11 separate passages, each with 4 questions about it. There are two styles of question in section 1, and each requires a slightly different approach. All questions start with a statement relating to something in the passage.

In the first type of question, you are asked if the statement is true or false based on the passage. There is also the option to answer “cannot tell”. Choose “true” if the statement either matches the passage or can be directly inferred from it. Choose “false” if the statement either contradicts the passage or exaggerates a claim the passage makes to an extent that it becomes untrue.

Choosing the “cannot tell” option can be harder. Remember that you are answering based ONLY on the passage and not on any of your own knowledge – so you choose the “cannot tell” option if there is not enough information to make up your mind one way or the other. Try to choose this option actively. “Cannot tell” isn’t something to conclude too quickly, it can often be the hardest answer to select. Choose it when you’re actively looking for a certain piece of information to help you answer a question, and you cannot find it.

In the other type of question, you are given a stem and have to select the most appropriate response based on the question. There is only one right answer – if more than one answer seems appropriate, the task is to choose the best response. Remember that there is no negative marking in the UKCAT. ere will be questions where you aren’t certain. If that is the case, then choose an option that seems sensible to you and move on. A clear thought process is a key to doing well in section 1 – you will have the opportunity to build that up through the worked examples and practice questions until you’re answering like a pro!

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UCAT Verbal Reasoning Practice Tests

UCAT Verbal Reasoning Practice Tests

Total Questions: 44
Time Limit:  21 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS

You will be presented with passages to read, each associated with four questions.

Some questions assess critical reasoning skills, requiring candidates to make inferences and draw conclusions from information. You will need to read the passage of text carefully. You will then be presented with a question or incomplete statement and four response options. You are required to pick the best or most suitable response.

For other questions, your task is to read each passage of text carefully and then decide whether the statement provided follows logically. There are three answer options you can choose from:

  • True: On the basis of the information in the passage, the statement is true.
  • False: On the basis of the information in the passage, the statement is false.
  • Can’t Tell: You cannot tell from the information in the passage whether the statement is true or false.

You will only be able to select one response.

tail spin

1 / 44


On 29 July 1908, Harland and Wolff presented the drawings for a proposed new ship to the Chairman of the White Star Line company, J. Bruce Ismay. These drawings were approved and work began on a truly vast vessel. The finished ship was 882 feet 6 inches long, and weighed 46,328 tonnes. Due to its unprecedented size, it was suggested that this ship should be called Titanic.

Shortly after 11.40 pm on 14 April 1912, this same ship hit an iceberg in the North Atlantic. This created a series of holes below the waterline. Four of the watertight compartments flooding might have been withstood. Five was too many. The ship sank, bow first, on 15 April 1912. There were only enough lifeboats to accommodate half of the people onboard. Had the ship been carrying its full capacity of 3,339, this would have been reduced to one third.

The wreck of the ship lies 12,000 feet below the ocean surface. It was found in 1985 by a Franco-American expedition. The team discovered that it had split apart, probably near or at the surface, before sinking to the seabed. Out of the 1,330 passengers and 870 crew who had been onboard, 1,500 died. After a 2004 expedition, photos were released of possible human remains on the ocean floor.


 

There were enough lifeboats to accommodate half the ship’s capacity

2 / 44


On 29 July 1908, Harland and Wolff presented the drawings for a proposed new ship to the Chairman of the White Star Line company, J. Bruce Ismay. These drawings were approved and work began on a truly vast vessel. The finished ship was 882 feet 6 inches long, and weighed 46,328 tonnes. Due to its unprecedented size, it was suggested that this ship should be called Titanic.

Shortly after 11.40 pm on 14 April 1912, this same ship hit an iceberg in the North Atlantic. This created a series of holes below the waterline. Four of the watertight compartments flooding might have been withstood. Five was too many. The ship sank, bow first, on 15 April 1912. There were only enough lifeboats to accommodate half of the people onboard. Had the ship been carrying its full capacity of 3,339, this would have been reduced to one third.

The wreck of the ship lies 12,000 feet below the ocean surface. It was found in 1985 by a Franco-American expedition. The team discovered that it had split apart, probably near or at the surface, before sinking to the seabed. Out of the 1,330 passengers and 870 crew who had been onboard, 1,500 died. After a 2004 expedition, photos were released of possible human remains on the ocean floor.


 

The ship would not have sunk if only four compartments had flooded

3 / 44


On 29 July 1908, Harland and Wolff presented the drawings for a proposed new ship to the Chairman of the White Star Line company, J. Bruce Ismay. These drawings were approved and work began on a truly vast vessel. The finished ship was 882 feet 6 inches long, and weighed 46,328 tonnes. Due to its unprecedented size, it was suggested that this ship should be called Titanic.

Shortly after 11.40 pm on 14 April 1912, this same ship hit an iceberg in the North Atlantic. This created a series of holes below the waterline. Four of the watertight compartments flooding might have been withstood. Five was too many. The ship sank, bow first, on 15 April 1912. There were only enough lifeboats to accommodate half of the people onboard. Had the ship been carrying its full capacity of 3,339, this would have been reduced to one third.

The wreck of the ship lies 12,000 feet below the ocean surface. It was found in 1985 by a Franco-American expedition. The team discovered that it had split apart, probably near or at the surface, before sinking to the seabed. Out of the 1,330 passengers and 870 crew who had been onboard, 1,500 died. After a 2004 expedition, photos were released of possible human remains on the ocean floor.


 

700 people who had been on-board the ship survived

4 / 44


On 29 July 1908, Harland and Wolff presented the drawings for a proposed new ship to the Chairman of the White Star Line company, J. Bruce Ismay. These drawings were approved and work began on a truly vast vessel. The finished ship was 882 feet 6 inches long, and weighed 46,328 tonnes. Due to its unprecedented size, it was suggested that this ship should be called Titanic.

Shortly after 11.40 pm on 14 April 1912, this same ship hit an iceberg in the North Atlantic. This created a series of holes below the waterline. Four of the watertight compartments flooding might have been withstood. Five was too many. The ship sank, bow first, on 15 April 1912. There were only enough lifeboats to accommodate half of the people onboard. Had the ship been carrying its full capacity of 3,339, this would have been reduced to one third.

The wreck of the ship lies 12,000 feet below the ocean surface. It was found in 1985 by a Franco-American expedition. The team discovered that it had split apart, probably near or at the surface, before sinking to the seabed. Out of the 1,330 passengers and 870 crew who had been onboard, 1,500 died. After a 2004 expedition, photos were released of possible human remains on the ocean floor.


 

Titanic sunk on 15 April 1912

5 / 44


On 14 October 2012, 43-year-old Austrian Felix Baumgartner floated into space in a capsule suspended from a stratospheric balloon. When the balloon reached 128,000 feet, Felix jumped from the capsule’s ledge towards the earth’s surface. The time it took Felix to reach the ground after leaving the capsule was 9 minutes and 3 seconds. 4 minutes and 20 seconds of this time was spent in freefall. Felix reached a maximum velocity of 833.9 miles/hour.

The jump was almost aborted when Felix’s helmet visor fogged up during his ascent into space. As he went through last-minute checks inside the capsule, it was found that a heater for his visor was not working. This meant the visor fogged up as he exhaled. ‘This is very serious, Joe’, he told retired US Air Force Col Joe Kittinger, whose records he was attempting to break, and who was acting as his radio link in mission control at Roswell airport.

Prior to Felix’s jump, Kittinger held the records for highest, farthest, and longest freefall. These were set when he leapt from a helium envelope in 1960. Felix failed to break Kittinger’s record for the longest freefall. After the jump, Felix thanked Kittinger for providing advice and encour- agement throughout his preparation, and during the jump itself.


 

Felix broke the sound barrier during his jump

6 / 44


On 14 October 2012, 43-year-old Austrian Felix Baumgartner floated into space in a capsule suspended from a stratospheric balloon. When the balloon reached 128,000 feet, Felix jumped from the capsule’s ledge towards the earth’s surface. The time it took Felix to reach the ground after leaving the capsule was 9 minutes and 3 seconds. 4 minutes and 20 seconds of this time was spent in freefall. Felix reached a maximum velocity of 833.9 miles/hour.

The jump was almost aborted when Felix’s helmet visor fogged up during his ascent into space. As he went through last-minute checks inside the capsule, it was found that a heater for his visor was not working. This meant the visor fogged up as he exhaled. ‘This is very serious, Joe’, he told retired US Air Force Col Joe Kittinger, whose records he was attempting to break, and who was acting as his radio link in mission control at Roswell airport.

Prior to Felix’s jump, Kittinger held the records for highest, farthest, and longest freefall. These were set when he leapt from a helium envelope in 1960. Felix failed to break Kittinger’s record for the longest freefall. After the jump, Felix thanked Kittinger for providing advice and encour- agement throughout his preparation, and during the jump itself.


 

Felix returned to the Earth’s surface 9 minutes and 3 seconds after leaving it in a strato- spheric balloon

7 / 44


On 14 October 2012, 43-year-old Austrian Felix Baumgartner floated into space in a capsule suspended from a stratospheric balloon. When the balloon reached 128,000 feet, Felix jumped from the capsule’s ledge towards the earth’s surface. The time it took Felix to reach the ground after leaving the capsule was 9 minutes and 3 seconds. 4 minutes and 20 seconds of this time was spent in freefall. Felix reached a maximum velocity of 833.9 miles/hour.

The jump was almost aborted when Felix’s helmet visor fogged up during his ascent into space. As he went through last-minute checks inside the capsule, it was found that a heater for his visor was not working. This meant the visor fogged up as he exhaled. ‘This is very serious, Joe’, he told retired US Air Force Col Joe Kittinger, whose records he was attempting to break, and who was acting as his radio link in mission control at Roswell airport.

Prior to Felix’s jump, Kittinger held the records for highest, farthest, and longest freefall. These were set when he leapt from a helium envelope in 1960. Felix failed to break Kittinger’s record for the longest freefall. After the jump, Felix thanked Kittinger for providing advice and encour- agement throughout his preparation, and during the jump itself.


 

During his 1960 jump, Joe Kittinger was in freefall for more than 4 minutes and 20 seconds

8 / 44


On 14 October 2012, 43-year-old Austrian Felix Baumgartner floated into space in a capsule suspended from a stratospheric balloon. When the balloon reached 128,000 feet, Felix jumped from the capsule’s ledge towards the earth’s surface. The time it took Felix to reach the ground after leaving the capsule was 9 minutes and 3 seconds. 4 minutes and 20 seconds of this time was spent in freefall. Felix reached a maximum velocity of 833.9 miles/hour.

The jump was almost aborted when Felix’s helmet visor fogged up during his ascent into space. As he went through last-minute checks inside the capsule, it was found that a heater for his visor was not working. This meant the visor fogged up as he exhaled. ‘This is very serious, Joe’, he told retired US Air Force Col Joe Kittinger, whose records he was attempting to break, and who was acting as his radio link in mission control at Roswell airport.

Prior to Felix’s jump, Kittinger held the records for highest, farthest, and longest freefall. These were set when he leapt from a helium envelope in 1960. Felix failed to break Kittinger’s record for the longest freefall. After the jump, Felix thanked Kittinger for providing advice and encour- agement throughout his preparation, and during the jump itself.


 

Joe Kittinger reassured Felix via radio when his visor fogged up

9 / 44


Robert Mugabe has been the leader of Zimbabwe for the three decades of its independence.
He was a key figure in the struggle for independence, which involved a bitter bush war against
a white minority that had cut the country loose from the colonial power Britain.

When he was first elected in 1980 he was praised for reaching out to the white minority and his political rivals, as well as for what was considered a pragmatic approach to the economy. However, he soon expelled from his government of national unity the party whose stronghold was in the south of the country and launched an anti-opposition campaign in which thou- sands died.

In the mid-1990s he embarked on a programme of land redistribution in which commercial farmers were driven off the land by mobs. The programme was accompanied by a steady decline in the economy. As the opposition to his rule increased, he and his ruling Zanu-PF party grew more determined to stay in power. Critics accuse him of heading a military regime.

In the elections of 2008, Zanu-PF lost its parliamentary majority and opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai defeated Mr Mugabe in the presidential vote but with insufficient votes to avoid a run-off. Mr Mugabe was sworn in for another term in June 2008 after a widely condemned run- off vote from which Mr Tsvangirai withdrew because of attacks on his supporters. Because of international pressure, Mr Mugabe agreed a power-sharing deal with Mr Tsvangirai, who was made prime minister.


 

Which of the following can be inferred from the passage:

 

10 / 44


Robert Mugabe has been the leader of Zimbabwe for the three decades of its independence.
He was a key figure in the struggle for independence, which involved a bitter bush war against
a white minority that had cut the country loose from the colonial power Britain.

When he was first elected in 1980 he was praised for reaching out to the white minority and his political rivals, as well as for what was considered a pragmatic approach to the economy. However, he soon expelled from his government of national unity the party whose stronghold was in the south of the country and launched an anti-opposition campaign in which thou- sands died.

In the mid-1990s he embarked on a programme of land redistribution in which commercial farmers were driven off the land by mobs. The programme was accompanied by a steady decline in the economy. As the opposition to his rule increased, he and his ruling Zanu-PF party grew more determined to stay in power. Critics accuse him of heading a military regime.

In the elections of 2008, Zanu-PF lost its parliamentary majority and opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai defeated Mr Mugabe in the presidential vote but with insufficient votes to avoid a run-off. Mr Mugabe was sworn in for another term in June 2008 after a widely condemned run- off vote from which Mr Tsvangirai withdrew because of attacks on his supporters. Because of international pressure, Mr Mugabe agreed a power-sharing deal with Mr Tsvangirai, who was made prime minister.


 

Mugabe’s approach to the economy:

 

11 / 44


Robert Mugabe has been the leader of Zimbabwe for the three decades of its independence.
He was a key figure in the struggle for independence, which involved a bitter bush war against
a white minority that had cut the country loose from the colonial power Britain.

When he was first elected in 1980 he was praised for reaching out to the white minority and his political rivals, as well as for what was considered a pragmatic approach to the economy. However, he soon expelled from his government of national unity the party whose stronghold was in the south of the country and launched an anti-opposition campaign in which thou- sands died.

In the mid-1990s he embarked on a programme of land redistribution in which commercial farmers were driven off the land by mobs. The programme was accompanied by a steady decline in the economy. As the opposition to his rule increased, he and his ruling Zanu-PF party grew more determined to stay in power. Critics accuse him of heading a military regime.

In the elections of 2008, Zanu-PF lost its parliamentary majority and opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai defeated Mr Mugabe in the presidential vote but with insufficient votes to avoid a run-off. Mr Mugabe was sworn in for another term in June 2008 after a widely condemned run- off vote from which Mr Tsvangirai withdrew because of attacks on his supporters. Because of international pressure, Mr Mugabe agreed a power-sharing deal with Mr Tsvangirai, who was made prime minister.


 

Which of the following was not a consequence of the 2008 elections?

 

12 / 44


Robert Mugabe has been the leader of Zimbabwe for the three decades of its independence.
He was a key figure in the struggle for independence, which involved a bitter bush war against
a white minority that had cut the country loose from the colonial power Britain.

When he was first elected in 1980 he was praised for reaching out to the white minority and his political rivals, as well as for what was considered a pragmatic approach to the economy. However, he soon expelled from his government of national unity the party whose stronghold was in the south of the country and launched an anti-opposition campaign in which thou- sands died.

In the mid-1990s he embarked on a programme of land redistribution in which commercial farmers were driven off the land by mobs. The programme was accompanied by a steady decline in the economy. As the opposition to his rule increased, he and his ruling Zanu-PF party grew more determined to stay in power. Critics accuse him of heading a military regime.

In the elections of 2008, Zanu-PF lost its parliamentary majority and opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai defeated Mr Mugabe in the presidential vote but with insufficient votes to avoid a run-off. Mr Mugabe was sworn in for another term in June 2008 after a widely condemned run- off vote from which Mr Tsvangirai withdrew because of attacks on his supporters. Because of international pressure, Mr Mugabe agreed a power-sharing deal with Mr Tsvangirai, who was made prime minister.


 

Mugabe’s land redistribution programme:

 

13 / 44


One of the most prestigious awards that a fiction author can win is the Man Booker Prize for Fiction. Since its advent in 1969, it has been awarded every year for the best original full-length novel written in the English language by a citizen of the Commonwealth of Nations, Ireland or Zimbabwe. The prize money awarded with the Booker Prize was originally £21,000. It stayed the same until it was raised to £50,000 in 2002 after it was sponsored by the Man Group. It has remained at this level since then. This has made it one of the world’s richest literary prizes.

From the time the prize was launched in 1969 until 2012, 23 of the winners have been from the UK. Hilary Mantel won in 2009 and 2012 with two sequential novels of the same genre. The win- ner in 2012 was the historical fiction book, Bring up the Bodies. Other authors who have won the Booker Prize more than once include Peter Carey, who triumphed in 1988 and 2001, and J. M. Coetzee, who took home the prize in 1983 and 1999.

In 1993, to mark the 25th anniversary of the Booker Prize, it was decided to choose a ‘Booker of Bookers’ Prize. Three previous judges of the award, Malcolm Bradbury, David Holloway and W. L. Webb chose Midnight’s Children (the 1981 winner) as ‘the best novel out of all the win- ners’. A similar prize, known as ‘The Best of the Booker’, was awarded in 2008 to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Booker Prize. The winner, after a public vote, was once again Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children.


 

Hilary Mantel has won £100,000 in prize money from the Booker Prize

 

14 / 44


One of the most prestigious awards that a fiction author can win is the Man Booker Prize for Fiction. Since its advent in 1969, it has been awarded every year for the best original full-length novel written in the English language by a citizen of the Commonwealth of Nations, Ireland or Zimbabwe. The prize money awarded with the Booker Prize was originally £21,000. It stayed the same until it was raised to £50,000 in 2002 after it was sponsored by the Man Group. It has remained at this level since then. This has made it one of the world’s richest literary prizes.

From the time the prize was launched in 1969 until 2012, 23 of the winners have been from the UK. Hilary Mantel won in 2009 and 2012 with two sequential novels of the same genre. The win- ner in 2012 was the historical fiction book, Bring up the Bodies. Other authors who have won the Booker Prize more than once include Peter Carey, who triumphed in 1988 and 2001, and J. M. Coetzee, who took home the prize in 1983 and 1999.

In 1993, to mark the 25th anniversary of the Booker Prize, it was decided to choose a ‘Booker of Bookers’ Prize. Three previous judges of the award, Malcolm Bradbury, David Holloway and W. L. Webb chose Midnight’s Children (the 1981 winner) as ‘the best novel out of all the win- ners’. A similar prize, known as ‘The Best of the Booker’, was awarded in 2008 to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Booker Prize. The winner, after a public vote, was once again Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children.


 

Salmon Rushdie won the Booker Prize in 1981

 

15 / 44


One of the most prestigious awards that a fiction author can win is the Man Booker Prize for Fiction. Since its advent in 1969, it has been awarded every year for the best original full-length novel written in the English language by a citizen of the Commonwealth of Nations, Ireland or Zimbabwe. The prize money awarded with the Booker Prize was originally £21,000. It stayed the same until it was raised to £50,000 in 2002 after it was sponsored by the Man Group. It has remained at this level since then. This has made it one of the world’s richest literary prizes.

From the time the prize was launched in 1969 until 2012, 23 of the winners have been from the UK. Hilary Mantel won in 2009 and 2012 with two sequential novels of the same genre. The win- ner in 2012 was the historical fiction book, Bring up the Bodies. Other authors who have won the Booker Prize more than once include Peter Carey, who triumphed in 1988 and 2001, and J. M. Coetzee, who took home the prize in 1983 and 1999.

In 1993, to mark the 25th anniversary of the Booker Prize, it was decided to choose a ‘Booker of Bookers’ Prize. Three previous judges of the award, Malcolm Bradbury, David Holloway and W. L. Webb chose Midnight’s Children (the 1981 winner) as ‘the best novel out of all the win- ners’. A similar prize, known as ‘The Best of the Booker’, was awarded in 2008 to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Booker Prize. The winner, after a public vote, was once again Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children.


 

The 2009 Booker Prize was won by a historical novel

 

16 / 44


One of the most prestigious awards that a fiction author can win is the Man Booker Prize for Fiction. Since its advent in 1969, it has been awarded every year for the best original full-length novel written in the English language by a citizen of the Commonwealth of Nations, Ireland or Zimbabwe. The prize money awarded with the Booker Prize was originally £21,000. It stayed the same until it was raised to £50,000 in 2002 after it was sponsored by the Man Group. It has remained at this level since then. This has made it one of the world’s richest literary prizes.

From the time the prize was launched in 1969 until 2012, 23 of the winners have been from the UK. Hilary Mantel won in 2009 and 2012 with two sequential novels of the same genre. The win- ner in 2012 was the historical fiction book, Bring up the Bodies. Other authors who have won the Booker Prize more than once include Peter Carey, who triumphed in 1988 and 2001, and J. M. Coetzee, who took home the prize in 1983 and 1999.

In 1993, to mark the 25th anniversary of the Booker Prize, it was decided to choose a ‘Booker of Bookers’ Prize. Three previous judges of the award, Malcolm Bradbury, David Holloway and W. L. Webb chose Midnight’s Children (the 1981 winner) as ‘the best novel out of all the win- ners’. A similar prize, known as ‘The Best of the Booker’, was awarded in 2008 to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Booker Prize. The winner, after a public vote, was once again Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children.


 

The Man Group contributed an extra £29,000 to the prize money for the Booker Prize

 

17 / 44


Eddie Chapman was an English criminal who became a spy for the Nazis during World War II. He was known to the Germans by the codename Fritz. However, he defected back to his home country and worked for many years as a double agent for the British. Chapman had been imprisoned on the Channel Islands when they fell into German hands. From there he was trans- ferred to a French jail, where he became acquainted with Captain Stephan von Gröning, head of the Abwehr in Paris. Chapman offered von Gröning his services as a turncoat agent.

After extensive training in explosives, radio communications and parachute jumping, Chapman was dropped into Cambridgeshire by the Germans on 16 December 1942. His mis- sion was to sabotage the de Havilland aircraft factory in Hatfield. Instead, he surrendered to MI5. The sabotage was faked with their help in order to deceive the Germans. MI5 gave Eddie Chapman the codename Zigzag – a reference to the way he appeared to jump from one side to the other during the course of World War II.

By 1944, Chapman was sent back to Britain by the Germans in order to report on the accu- racy of the coordinates they were programming into their V1 weapon. Chapman repeat- edly reported back to the Germans that the bombs fired by the weapon were hitting Central London. In fact, they were falling well short. Through this misinformation, the British were able to ensure that the wrong coordinates continued to be used and that bombs from the V1 fell in the countryside rather than their target in the heart of the capital.

At the end of the war, Chapman received a £6,000 payment from MI5 and was allowed to keep £1,000 he had received from the Germans. He received no other money. He was granted a pardon for his pre-war activities. During the war, Chapman was also awarded the Iron Cross by the Germans for sabotaging the de Havilland aircraft factory.


 

The Germans were successfully deceived by a fake sabotage of the de Havilland aircraft factory

 

18 / 44


Eddie Chapman was an English criminal who became a spy for the Nazis during World War II. He was known to the Germans by the codename Fritz. However, he defected back to his home country and worked for many years as a double agent for the British. Chapman had been imprisoned on the Channel Islands when they fell into German hands. From there he was trans- ferred to a French jail, where he became acquainted with Captain Stephan von Gröning, head of the Abwehr in Paris. Chapman offered von Gröning his services as a turncoat agent.

After extensive training in explosives, radio communications and parachute jumping, Chapman was dropped into Cambridgeshire by the Germans on 16 December 1942. His mis- sion was to sabotage the de Havilland aircraft factory in Hatfield. Instead, he surrendered to MI5. The sabotage was faked with their help in order to deceive the Germans. MI5 gave Eddie Chapman the codename Zigzag – a reference to the way he appeared to jump from one side to the other during the course of World War II.

By 1944, Chapman was sent back to Britain by the Germans in order to report on the accu- racy of the coordinates they were programming into their V1 weapon. Chapman repeat- edly reported back to the Germans that the bombs fired by the weapon were hitting Central London. In fact, they were falling well short. Through this misinformation, the British were able to ensure that the wrong coordinates continued to be used and that bombs from the V1 fell in the countryside rather than their target in the heart of the capital.

At the end of the war, Chapman received a £6,000 payment from MI5 and was allowed to keep £1,000 he had received from the Germans. He received no other money. He was granted a pardon for his pre-war activities. During the war, Chapman was also awarded the Iron Cross by the Germans for sabotaging the de Havilland aircraft factory.


 

Eddie Chapman, Fritz and Zigzag are the same person

 

19 / 44


Eddie Chapman was an English criminal who became a spy for the Nazis during World War II. He was known to the Germans by the codename Fritz. However, he defected back to his home country and worked for many years as a double agent for the British. Chapman had been imprisoned on the Channel Islands when they fell into German hands. From there he was trans- ferred to a French jail, where he became acquainted with Captain Stephan von Gröning, head of the Abwehr in Paris. Chapman offered von Gröning his services as a turncoat agent.

After extensive training in explosives, radio communications and parachute jumping, Chapman was dropped into Cambridgeshire by the Germans on 16 December 1942. His mis- sion was to sabotage the de Havilland aircraft factory in Hatfield. Instead, he surrendered to MI5. The sabotage was faked with their help in order to deceive the Germans. MI5 gave Eddie Chapman the codename Zigzag – a reference to the way he appeared to jump from one side to the other during the course of World War II.

By 1944, Chapman was sent back to Britain by the Germans in order to report on the accu- racy of the coordinates they were programming into their V1 weapon. Chapman repeat- edly reported back to the Germans that the bombs fired by the weapon were hitting Central London. In fact, they were falling well short. Through this misinformation, the British were able to ensure that the wrong coordinates continued to be used and that bombs from the V1 fell in the countryside rather than their target in the heart of the capital.

At the end of the war, Chapman received a £6,000 payment from MI5 and was allowed to keep £1,000 he had received from the Germans. He received no other money. He was granted a pardon for his pre-war activities. During the war, Chapman was also awarded the Iron Cross by the Germans for sabotaging the de Havilland aircraft factory.


 

The V1 weapon was not accurate

 

20 / 44


Eddie Chapman was an English criminal who became a spy for the Nazis during World War II. He was known to the Germans by the codename Fritz. However, he defected back to his home country and worked for many years as a double agent for the British. Chapman had been imprisoned on the Channel Islands when they fell into German hands. From there he was trans- ferred to a French jail, where he became acquainted with Captain Stephan von Gröning, head of the Abwehr in Paris. Chapman offered von Gröning his services as a turncoat agent.

After extensive training in explosives, radio communications and parachute jumping, Chapman was dropped into Cambridgeshire by the Germans on 16 December 1942. His mis- sion was to sabotage the de Havilland aircraft factory in Hatfield. Instead, he surrendered to MI5. The sabotage was faked with their help in order to deceive the Germans. MI5 gave Eddie Chapman the codename Zigzag – a reference to the way he appeared to jump from one side to the other during the course of World War II.

By 1944, Chapman was sent back to Britain by the Germans in order to report on the accu- racy of the coordinates they were programming into their V1 weapon. Chapman repeat- edly reported back to the Germans that the bombs fired by the weapon were hitting Central London. In fact, they were falling well short. Through this misinformation, the British were able to ensure that the wrong coordinates continued to be used and that bombs from the V1 fell in the countryside rather than their target in the heart of the capital.

At the end of the war, Chapman received a £6,000 payment from MI5 and was allowed to keep £1,000 he had received from the Germans. He received no other money. He was granted a pardon for his pre-war activities. During the war, Chapman was also awarded the Iron Cross by the Germans for sabotaging the de Havilland aircraft factory.


 

Chapman received £7,000 at the end of the war

 

21 / 44


The construction of the Eiffel Tower finished in 1889, and it served as the entrance to that year’s World’s Fair. It was, in 1889, the tallest building in the world, and remained so until the open- ing of the Chrysler Building in New York, 41 years later. The Eiffel Tower stands at 1,050 feet high (including an antenna that was added in 1957)

Work on the foundations of the Eiffel Tower started in January 1887. The actual iron work com- menced after these were finished in June of that year. The 18,000 parts needed to construct the Eiffel Tower were detailed in 3,000 plan drawings. Many of the parts were riveted together in a fac- tory in a Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret and taken to the site of the Tower by horse and cart. The Eiffel Tower is made of iron. Obviously, iron rusts unless it is treated with chemicals, which can be found in certain types of paint. The Eiffel Tower is coated with 50–60 tonnes of paint every 7 years. Three different colours are typically used, in order to enhance the lighting effects on the tower.

In its long history, the Eiffel Tower has seen many interesting events and landmarks. Soon after its opening in September 1889, it was visited by Thomas Edison, who signed the guestbook. Upon the German occupation of Paris in 1940, the lift cables of the Tower were cut by the French so that Adolf Hitler would have to climb the steps. It was said that Hitler conquered France, but did not conquer the Eiffel Tower. On 28 November 2002, the Eiffel Tower received its 200 millionth guest


 

The Eiffel Tower is painted every 7 years to prevent rust

 

22 / 44


The construction of the Eiffel Tower finished in 1889, and it served as the entrance to that year’s World’s Fair. It was, in 1889, the tallest building in the world, and remained so until the open- ing of the Chrysler Building in New York, 41 years later. The Eiffel Tower stands at 1,050 feet high (including an antenna that was added in 1957)

Work on the foundations of the Eiffel Tower started in January 1887. The actual iron work com- menced after these were finished in June of that year. The 18,000 parts needed to construct the Eiffel Tower were detailed in 3,000 plan drawings. Many of the parts were riveted together in a fac- tory in a Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret and taken to the site of the Tower by horse and cart. The Eiffel Tower is made of iron. Obviously, iron rusts unless it is treated with chemicals, which can be found in certain types of paint. The Eiffel Tower is coated with 50–60 tonnes of paint every 7 years. Three different colours are typically used, in order to enhance the lighting effects on the tower.

In its long history, the Eiffel Tower has seen many interesting events and landmarks. Soon after its opening in September 1889, it was visited by Thomas Edison, who signed the guestbook. Upon the German occupation of Paris in 1940, the lift cables of the Tower were cut by the French so that Adolf Hitler would have to climb the steps. It was said that Hitler conquered France, but did not conquer the Eiffel Tower. On 28 November 2002, the Eiffel Tower received its 200 millionth guest


 

Each plan drawing detailed six of the Eiffel Tower’s parts

 

23 / 44


The construction of the Eiffel Tower finished in 1889, and it served as the entrance to that year’s World’s Fair. It was, in 1889, the tallest building in the world, and remained so until the open- ing of the Chrysler Building in New York, 41 years later. The Eiffel Tower stands at 1,050 feet high (including an antenna that was added in 1957)

Work on the foundations of the Eiffel Tower started in January 1887. The actual iron work com- menced after these were finished in June of that year. The 18,000 parts needed to construct the Eiffel Tower were detailed in 3,000 plan drawings. Many of the parts were riveted together in a fac- tory in a Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret and taken to the site of the Tower by horse and cart. The Eiffel Tower is made of iron. Obviously, iron rusts unless it is treated with chemicals, which can be found in certain types of paint. The Eiffel Tower is coated with 50–60 tonnes of paint every 7 years. Three different colours are typically used, in order to enhance the lighting effects on the tower.

In its long history, the Eiffel Tower has seen many interesting events and landmarks. Soon after its opening in September 1889, it was visited by Thomas Edison, who signed the guestbook. Upon the German occupation of Paris in 1940, the lift cables of the Tower were cut by the French so that Adolf Hitler would have to climb the steps. It was said that Hitler conquered France, but did not conquer the Eiffel Tower. On 28 November 2002, the Eiffel Tower received its 200 millionth guest


 

Thomas Edison and Adolf Hitler have visited the Eiffel Tower

 

24 / 44


The construction of the Eiffel Tower finished in 1889, and it served as the entrance to that year’s World’s Fair. It was, in 1889, the tallest building in the world, and remained so until the open- ing of the Chrysler Building in New York, 41 years later. The Eiffel Tower stands at 1,050 feet high (including an antenna that was added in 1957)

Work on the foundations of the Eiffel Tower started in January 1887. The actual iron work com- menced after these were finished in June of that year. The 18,000 parts needed to construct the Eiffel Tower were detailed in 3,000 plan drawings. Many of the parts were riveted together in a fac- tory in a Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret and taken to the site of the Tower by horse and cart. The Eiffel Tower is made of iron. Obviously, iron rusts unless it is treated with chemicals, which can be found in certain types of paint. The Eiffel Tower is coated with 50–60 tonnes of paint every 7 years. Three different colours are typically used, in order to enhance the lighting effects on the tower.

In its long history, the Eiffel Tower has seen many interesting events and landmarks. Soon after its opening in September 1889, it was visited by Thomas Edison, who signed the guestbook. Upon the German occupation of Paris in 1940, the lift cables of the Tower were cut by the French so that Adolf Hitler would have to climb the steps. It was said that Hitler conquered France, but did not conquer the Eiffel Tower. On 28 November 2002, the Eiffel Tower received its 200 millionth guest


 

The 1,050 feet Eiffel Tower was the world’s tallest building in 1889

 

25 / 44


One of the most important discoveries in the history of modern medicine happened in 1928, when the Scottish bacteriologist, Alexander Fleming, was studying influenza. One night, Fleming left open a culture dish containing the staphylococci germ. When Fleming returned in the morning, he discovered that a blue-green mould had formed in this dish, and that around this mould there was a bacteria-free circle, which looked like a small halo. Fleming named the active substance ‘penicillin’.

However, it was Australian Howard Florey and Ernst Chain who developed penicillin so it could be produced as drug. Florey and Chain were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1945. Their advance allowed American drug companies to mass produce penicillin in the 1940s. In 1943, the best sample of the mould needed for penicillin production was found on a mouldy cantaloupe. One year later, in 1944, the USA produced 2.3 million doses of penicillin, most of which were ready in time for the invasion of Normandy. By mid-1945, 646 billion units were being produced per year in the USA, as a direct result of World War II.


 

Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin by accident

 

26 / 44


One of the most important discoveries in the history of modern medicine happened in 1928, when the Scottish bacteriologist, Alexander Fleming, was studying influenza. One night, Fleming left open a culture dish containing the staphylococci germ. When Fleming returned in the morning, he discovered that a blue-green mould had formed in this dish, and that around this mould there was a bacteria-free circle, which looked like a small halo. Fleming named the active substance ‘penicillin’.

However, it was Australian Howard Florey and Ernst Chain who developed penicillin so it could be produced as drug. Florey and Chain were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1945. Their advance allowed American drug companies to mass produce penicillin in the 1940s. In 1943, the best sample of the mould needed for penicillin production was found on a mouldy cantaloupe. One year later, in 1944, the USA produced 2.3 million doses of penicillin, most of which were ready in time for the invasion of Normandy. By mid-1945, 646 billion units were being produced per year in the USA, as a direct result of World War II.


 

Over 2 million doses of penicillin were used during the invasion of Normandy

 

27 / 44


One of the most important discoveries in the history of modern medicine happened in 1928, when the Scottish bacteriologist, Alexander Fleming, was studying influenza. One night, Fleming left open a culture dish containing the staphylococci germ. When Fleming returned in the morning, he discovered that a blue-green mould had formed in this dish, and that around this mould there was a bacteria-free circle, which looked like a small halo. Fleming named the active substance ‘penicillin’.

However, it was Australian Howard Florey and Ernst Chain who developed penicillin so it could be produced as drug. Florey and Chain were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1945. Their advance allowed American drug companies to mass produce penicillin in the 1940s. In 1943, the best sample of the mould needed for penicillin production was found on a mouldy cantaloupe. One year later, in 1944, the USA produced 2.3 million doses of penicillin, most of which were ready in time for the invasion of Normandy. By mid-1945, 646 billion units were being produced per year in the USA, as a direct result of World War II.


 

Cantaloupes produce more of the mould needed to create penicillin than other fruits

 

28 / 44


One of the most important discoveries in the history of modern medicine happened in 1928, when the Scottish bacteriologist, Alexander Fleming, was studying influenza. One night, Fleming left open a culture dish containing the staphylococci germ. When Fleming returned in the morning, he discovered that a blue-green mould had formed in this dish, and that around this mould there was a bacteria-free circle, which looked like a small halo. Fleming named the active substance ‘penicillin’.

However, it was Australian Howard Florey and Ernst Chain who developed penicillin so it could be produced as drug. Florey and Chain were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1945. Their advance allowed American drug companies to mass produce penicillin in the 1940s. In 1943, the best sample of the mould needed for penicillin production was found on a mouldy cantaloupe. One year later, in 1944, the USA produced 2.3 million doses of penicillin, most of which were ready in time for the invasion of Normandy. By mid-1945, 646 billion units were being produced per year in the USA, as a direct result of World War II.


 

World War II led to increased production of penicillin in the USA

 

29 / 44


The near-extinction of the dinosaurs occurred around 66 million years ago. We should say ‘near-extinction’, rather than ‘extinction’, since there are species of birds that are techni- cally dinosaurs and live to this day. The technical name given to this ‘near-extinction’ is the ‘Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event’ – or the ‘K-Pg extinction event’, for short. It marks the end of the Mesozoic Era and begins the Cenozoic Era. In the 1970s, palaeontologists started to come up with a variety of theories to explain the K-Pg event. There are fundamentally two schools of thought. One says that it was caused by an impact event, such as an asteroid collision. The other suggests that a confluence of various circumstances resulted in dinosaurs vanishing abruptly from the fossil records.

Within the fossil records, the time of the K-Pg extinction is marked by a thin layer of sediment known as the ‘K-Pg boundary’. The boundary clay shows high levels of the metal iridium, which is rare in the Earth’s crust but abundant in asteroids. This raises the possibility that the K-Pg event was caused by a giant asteroid or comet, which led to disturbances to the environment including the temporary shutdown of photosynthesis by land plants and plankton. The identifi- cation of the 110-mile-wide Chicxulub crater in Mexico provided conclusive evidence that the K-Pg boundary clay contained debris from an asteroid impact.

Among the other possible reasons for the K-Pg extinction, some palaeontologists point to climate change caused by decreasing volcanic activity. This would have cooled the earth significantly. Research proves that prior to the K-Pg extinction event, the Earth’s poles had been 50 degrees centigrade hotter than they are today. Other scientists point to evidence of a significant drop in oxygen levels as the cause of the K-Pg extinction event. If large dinosaurs had respiratory systems similar to birds, this may have meant they become unable to fulfil the significant oxygen requirements of their bodies.


 

If the passage is true, which of the following is also true?

 

30 / 44


The near-extinction of the dinosaurs occurred around 66 million years ago. We should say ‘near-extinction’, rather than ‘extinction’, since there are species of birds that are techni- cally dinosaurs and live to this day. The technical name given to this ‘near-extinction’ is the ‘Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event’ – or the ‘K-Pg extinction event’, for short. It marks the end of the Mesozoic Era and begins the Cenozoic Era. In the 1970s, palaeontologists started to come up with a variety of theories to explain the K-Pg event. There are fundamentally two schools of thought. One says that it was caused by an impact event, such as an asteroid collision. The other suggests that a confluence of various circumstances resulted in dinosaurs vanishing abruptly from the fossil records.

Within the fossil records, the time of the K-Pg extinction is marked by a thin layer of sediment known as the ‘K-Pg boundary’. The boundary clay shows high levels of the metal iridium, which is rare in the Earth’s crust but abundant in asteroids. This raises the possibility that the K-Pg event was caused by a giant asteroid or comet, which led to disturbances to the environment including the temporary shutdown of photosynthesis by land plants and plankton. The identifi- cation of the 110-mile-wide Chicxulub crater in Mexico provided conclusive evidence that the K-Pg boundary clay contained debris from an asteroid impact.

Among the other possible reasons for the K-Pg extinction, some palaeontologists point to climate change caused by decreasing volcanic activity. This would have cooled the earth significantly. Research proves that prior to the K-Pg extinction event, the Earth’s poles had been 50 degrees centigrade hotter than they are today. Other scientists point to evidence of a significant drop in oxygen levels as the cause of the K-Pg extinction event. If large dinosaurs had respiratory systems similar to birds, this may have meant they become unable to fulfil the significant oxygen requirements of their bodies.


 

The passage best supports which of the following statements?

 

31 / 44


The near-extinction of the dinosaurs occurred around 66 million years ago. We should say ‘near-extinction’, rather than ‘extinction’, since there are species of birds that are techni- cally dinosaurs and live to this day. The technical name given to this ‘near-extinction’ is the ‘Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event’ – or the ‘K-Pg extinction event’, for short. It marks the end of the Mesozoic Era and begins the Cenozoic Era. In the 1970s, palaeontologists started to come up with a variety of theories to explain the K-Pg event. There are fundamentally two schools of thought. One says that it was caused by an impact event, such as an asteroid collision. The other suggests that a confluence of various circumstances resulted in dinosaurs vanishing abruptly from the fossil records.

Within the fossil records, the time of the K-Pg extinction is marked by a thin layer of sediment known as the ‘K-Pg boundary’. The boundary clay shows high levels of the metal iridium, which is rare in the Earth’s crust but abundant in asteroids. This raises the possibility that the K-Pg event was caused by a giant asteroid or comet, which led to disturbances to the environment including the temporary shutdown of photosynthesis by land plants and plankton. The identifi- cation of the 110-mile-wide Chicxulub crater in Mexico provided conclusive evidence that the K-Pg boundary clay contained debris from an asteroid impact.

Among the other possible reasons for the K-Pg extinction, some palaeontologists point to climate change caused by decreasing volcanic activity. This would have cooled the earth significantly. Research proves that prior to the K-Pg extinction event, the Earth’s poles had been 50 degrees centigrade hotter than they are today. Other scientists point to evidence of a significant drop in oxygen levels as the cause of the K-Pg extinction event. If large dinosaurs had respiratory systems similar to birds, this may have meant they become unable to fulfil the significant oxygen requirements of their bodies.


 

Which of the following statements, if true, would be most likely to weaken the argument that the K-Pg extinction event was caused by a comet or asteroid?

 

32 / 44


The near-extinction of the dinosaurs occurred around 66 million years ago. We should say ‘near-extinction’, rather than ‘extinction’, since there are species of birds that are techni- cally dinosaurs and live to this day. The technical name given to this ‘near-extinction’ is the ‘Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event’ – or the ‘K-Pg extinction event’, for short. It marks the end of the Mesozoic Era and begins the Cenozoic Era. In the 1970s, palaeontologists started to come up with a variety of theories to explain the K-Pg event. There are fundamentally two schools of thought. One says that it was caused by an impact event, such as an asteroid collision. The other suggests that a confluence of various circumstances resulted in dinosaurs vanishing abruptly from the fossil records.

Within the fossil records, the time of the K-Pg extinction is marked by a thin layer of sediment known as the ‘K-Pg boundary’. The boundary clay shows high levels of the metal iridium, which is rare in the Earth’s crust but abundant in asteroids. This raises the possibility that the K-Pg event was caused by a giant asteroid or comet, which led to disturbances to the environment including the temporary shutdown of photosynthesis by land plants and plankton. The identifi- cation of the 110-mile-wide Chicxulub crater in Mexico provided conclusive evidence that the K-Pg boundary clay contained debris from an asteroid impact.

Among the other possible reasons for the K-Pg extinction, some palaeontologists point to climate change caused by decreasing volcanic activity. This would have cooled the earth significantly. Research proves that prior to the K-Pg extinction event, the Earth’s poles had been 50 degrees centigrade hotter than they are today. Other scientists point to evidence of a significant drop in oxygen levels as the cause of the K-Pg extinction event. If large dinosaurs had respiratory systems similar to birds, this may have meant they become unable to fulfil the significant oxygen requirements of their bodies.


 

Which of the following can be logically inferred from the passage?

 

33 / 44


The two highest grossing movies of all time (not taking into account inflation) were both directed by James Cameron. His 2009 movie, Avatar, has taken more than any other film in his- tory: $2.8 billion worldwide. Featuring the blue extra-terrestrials of the Na’vi tribe, who live on the habitable moon of Pandora, the 162-minute epic revolutionised the way 3D technology was used. At the centre of the plot is a romance between one of the Na’vi, Neytiri, and a human called Jake Sully. Sully has been sent to Pandora on behalf of a mining expedition to extract the valuable mineral, unobtainium. But when he and Neytiri fall in love, he ends up fighting for her tribe against his former employers.

Titanic is director Cameron’s next highest-grossing film, taking $2.3 billion overall. The movie revolves around a romance between a blue-collar nomad called Jack Dawson and an aristo- cratic lady, Rose DeWitt Bukater. Titanic was first released in 1997. After it was re-released in 3D in April 2012, it took an additional $364 million, which is included in its overall gross takings. The movie was budgeted at $200 million and was the most expensive film ever made when it was released.

When the numbers are adjusted for inflation, the list of highest-grossing films looks different. Avatar drops to second place, and is trumped by Gone with the Wind. Since its release in 1939, the 220-minute epic has taken $3.3 billion. Two films directed by Steven Spielberg enter the top- ten highest-grossing films list when it is adjusted for inflation: E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial ($2.2 billion) and Jaws ($1.9 billion). Titanic falls to number four as it is overtaken by Star Wars.


 

Titanic took more than $2 billion before April 2012

 

34 / 44


The two highest grossing movies of all time (not taking into account inflation) were both directed by James Cameron. His 2009 movie, Avatar, has taken more than any other film in his- tory: $2.8 billion worldwide. Featuring the blue extra-terrestrials of the Na’vi tribe, who live on the habitable moon of Pandora, the 162-minute epic revolutionised the way 3D technology was used. At the centre of the plot is a romance between one of the Na’vi, Neytiri, and a human called Jake Sully. Sully has been sent to Pandora on behalf of a mining expedition to extract the valuable mineral, unobtainium. But when he and Neytiri fall in love, he ends up fighting for her tribe against his former employers.

Titanic is director Cameron’s next highest-grossing film, taking $2.3 billion overall. The movie revolves around a romance between a blue-collar nomad called Jack Dawson and an aristo- cratic lady, Rose DeWitt Bukater. Titanic was first released in 1997. After it was re-released in 3D in April 2012, it took an additional $364 million, which is included in its overall gross takings. The movie was budgeted at $200 million and was the most expensive film ever made when it was released.

When the numbers are adjusted for inflation, the list of highest-grossing films looks different. Avatar drops to second place, and is trumped by Gone with the Wind. Since its release in 1939, the 220-minute epic has taken $3.3 billion. Two films directed by Steven Spielberg enter the top- ten highest-grossing films list when it is adjusted for inflation: E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial ($2.2 billion) and Jaws ($1.9 billion). Titanic falls to number four as it is overtaken by Star Wars.


 

Multiple James Cameron films feature romances between characters from different backgrounds

 

35 / 44


The two highest grossing movies of all time (not taking into account inflation) were both directed by James Cameron. His 2009 movie, Avatar, has taken more than any other film in his- tory: $2.8 billion worldwide. Featuring the blue extra-terrestrials of the Na’vi tribe, who live on the habitable moon of Pandora, the 162-minute epic revolutionised the way 3D technology was used. At the centre of the plot is a romance between one of the Na’vi, Neytiri, and a human called Jake Sully. Sully has been sent to Pandora on behalf of a mining expedition to extract the valuable mineral, unobtainium. But when he and Neytiri fall in love, he ends up fighting for her tribe against his former employers.

Titanic is director Cameron’s next highest-grossing film, taking $2.3 billion overall. The movie revolves around a romance between a blue-collar nomad called Jack Dawson and an aristo- cratic lady, Rose DeWitt Bukater. Titanic was first released in 1997. After it was re-released in 3D in April 2012, it took an additional $364 million, which is included in its overall gross takings. The movie was budgeted at $200 million and was the most expensive film ever made when it was released.

When the numbers are adjusted for inflation, the list of highest-grossing films looks different. Avatar drops to second place, and is trumped by Gone with the Wind. Since its release in 1939, the 220-minute epic has taken $3.3 billion. Two films directed by Steven Spielberg enter the top- ten highest-grossing films list when it is adjusted for inflation: E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial ($2.2 billion) and Jaws ($1.9 billion). Titanic falls to number four as it is overtaken by Star Wars.


 

Steven Spielberg’s two entries on the top-ten highest-grossing film list (adjusted for infla- tion) both feature non-human characters

 

36 / 44


The two highest grossing movies of all time (not taking into account inflation) were both directed by James Cameron. His 2009 movie, Avatar, has taken more than any other film in his- tory: $2.8 billion worldwide. Featuring the blue extra-terrestrials of the Na’vi tribe, who live on the habitable moon of Pandora, the 162-minute epic revolutionised the way 3D technology was used. At the centre of the plot is a romance between one of the Na’vi, Neytiri, and a human called Jake Sully. Sully has been sent to Pandora on behalf of a mining expedition to extract the valuable mineral, unobtainium. But when he and Neytiri fall in love, he ends up fighting for her tribe against his former employers.

Titanic is director Cameron’s next highest-grossing film, taking $2.3 billion overall. The movie revolves around a romance between a blue-collar nomad called Jack Dawson and an aristo- cratic lady, Rose DeWitt Bukater. Titanic was first released in 1997. After it was re-released in 3D in April 2012, it took an additional $364 million, which is included in its overall gross takings. The movie was budgeted at $200 million and was the most expensive film ever made when it was released.

When the numbers are adjusted for inflation, the list of highest-grossing films looks different. Avatar drops to second place, and is trumped by Gone with the Wind. Since its release in 1939, the 220-minute epic has taken $3.3 billion. Two films directed by Steven Spielberg enter the top- ten highest-grossing films list when it is adjusted for inflation: E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial ($2.2 billion) and Jaws ($1.9 billion). Titanic falls to number four as it is overtaken by Star Wars.


 

Avatar and Titanic are the highest-grossing movies of all time (not taking into account inflation)

 

37 / 44


The richest man in history is J. D. Rockefeller. When he died in 1937, his estimated wealth, adjusted for the late 2000s, was between 392 and 664 billion US dollars. He was also the first person to accumulate personal wealth of $1 billion, passing that landmark in 1916. The source of Rockefeller’s wealth was oil. His company, Standard Oil, which was established in Ohio in 1870, effectively came to hold a monopoly over oil supply in the US. In fact, it was ruled an illegal monopoly by the Supreme Court in 1911. Standard Oil’s dominant position in the market was the result of Rockefeller’s innovative strategies, which increased efficiency, combined with a ruthless approach to competing companies. After the Supreme Court ruling it was broken up into 33 subsidiaries, including ExxonMobil.

A good example of Standard Oil’s ruthless strategy at work was the deals it made with the railroad companies. In 1868, the Lake Shore Railroad gave Rockefeller’s firm a going rate of one cent a gallon or forty-two cents a barrel. This represented a 71% discount from its listed rates in return for a promise to ship at least 60 carloads of oil daily. The deal therefore dra- matically increased Standard Oil’s efficiency overnight. Then, in 1872, Rockefeller joined the South Improvement Company – a deal which paved the way for him to increase Standard Oil’s efficiency once again by receiving rebates for shipping and drawbacks on oil his com- petitors shipped. When this deal became known, competitors convinced the Pennsylvania Legislature to revoke South Improvement’s charter, however, and no oil was shipped under this arrangement.

The second richest man in history, Andrew Carnegie, also dealt in resources. He controlled the most extensive integrated iron and steel operations ever owned by an individual in the United States. Carnegie was the first person to use the Bessemer process on an industrial scale. This process removes impurities from iron by oxidation. The Carnegie Steel Company was sold to J. P. Morgan in 1901, leading to the creation of the US Steel Corporation. Carnegie’s adjusted net worth was around $300 billion at the time of his death..


 

ExxonMobil was created in 1911

 

38 / 44


The richest man in history is J. D. Rockefeller. When he died in 1937, his estimated wealth, adjusted for the late 2000s, was between 392 and 664 billion US dollars. He was also the first person to accumulate personal wealth of $1 billion, passing that landmark in 1916. The source of Rockefeller’s wealth was oil. His company, Standard Oil, which was established in Ohio in 1870, effectively came to hold a monopoly over oil supply in the US. In fact, it was ruled an illegal monopoly by the Supreme Court in 1911. Standard Oil’s dominant position in the market was the result of Rockefeller’s innovative strategies, which increased efficiency, combined with a ruthless approach to competing companies. After the Supreme Court ruling it was broken up into 33 subsidiaries, including ExxonMobil.

A good example of Standard Oil’s ruthless strategy at work was the deals it made with the railroad companies. In 1868, the Lake Shore Railroad gave Rockefeller’s firm a going rate of one cent a gallon or forty-two cents a barrel. This represented a 71% discount from its listed rates in return for a promise to ship at least 60 carloads of oil daily. The deal therefore dra- matically increased Standard Oil’s efficiency overnight. Then, in 1872, Rockefeller joined the South Improvement Company – a deal which paved the way for him to increase Standard Oil’s efficiency once again by receiving rebates for shipping and drawbacks on oil his com- petitors shipped. When this deal became known, competitors convinced the Pennsylvania Legislature to revoke South Improvement’s charter, however, and no oil was shipped under this arrangement.

The second richest man in history, Andrew Carnegie, also dealt in resources. He controlled the most extensive integrated iron and steel operations ever owned by an individual in the United States. Carnegie was the first person to use the Bessemer process on an industrial scale. This process removes impurities from iron by oxidation. The Carnegie Steel Company was sold to J. P. Morgan in 1901, leading to the creation of the US Steel Corporation. Carnegie’s adjusted net worth was around $300 billion at the time of his death..


 

Standard Oil’s efficiency was increased by deals with the Lake Shore Railroad in 1868 and the South Improvement Company in 1872

 

39 / 44


The richest man in history is J. D. Rockefeller. When he died in 1937, his estimated wealth, adjusted for the late 2000s, was between 392 and 664 billion US dollars. He was also the first person to accumulate personal wealth of $1 billion, passing that landmark in 1916. The source of Rockefeller’s wealth was oil. His company, Standard Oil, which was established in Ohio in 1870, effectively came to hold a monopoly over oil supply in the US. In fact, it was ruled an illegal monopoly by the Supreme Court in 1911. Standard Oil’s dominant position in the market was the result of Rockefeller’s innovative strategies, which increased efficiency, combined with a ruthless approach to competing companies. After the Supreme Court ruling it was broken up into 33 subsidiaries, including ExxonMobil.

A good example of Standard Oil’s ruthless strategy at work was the deals it made with the railroad companies. In 1868, the Lake Shore Railroad gave Rockefeller’s firm a going rate of one cent a gallon or forty-two cents a barrel. This represented a 71% discount from its listed rates in return for a promise to ship at least 60 carloads of oil daily. The deal therefore dra- matically increased Standard Oil’s efficiency overnight. Then, in 1872, Rockefeller joined the South Improvement Company – a deal which paved the way for him to increase Standard Oil’s efficiency once again by receiving rebates for shipping and drawbacks on oil his com- petitors shipped. When this deal became known, competitors convinced the Pennsylvania Legislature to revoke South Improvement’s charter, however, and no oil was shipped under this arrangement.

The second richest man in history, Andrew Carnegie, also dealt in resources. He controlled the most extensive integrated iron and steel operations ever owned by an individual in the United States. Carnegie was the first person to use the Bessemer process on an industrial scale. This process removes impurities from iron by oxidation. The Carnegie Steel Company was sold to J. P. Morgan in 1901, leading to the creation of the US Steel Corporation. Carnegie’s adjusted net worth was around $300 billion at the time of his death..


 

Rockefeller and Carnegie were both innovators

 

40 / 44


The richest man in history is J. D. Rockefeller. When he died in 1937, his estimated wealth, adjusted for the late 2000s, was between 392 and 664 billion US dollars. He was also the first person to accumulate personal wealth of $1 billion, passing that landmark in 1916. The source of Rockefeller’s wealth was oil. His company, Standard Oil, which was established in Ohio in 1870, effectively came to hold a monopoly over oil supply in the US. In fact, it was ruled an illegal monopoly by the Supreme Court in 1911. Standard Oil’s dominant position in the market was the result of Rockefeller’s innovative strategies, which increased efficiency, combined with a ruthless approach to competing companies. After the Supreme Court ruling it was broken up into 33 subsidiaries, including ExxonMobil.

A good example of Standard Oil’s ruthless strategy at work was the deals it made with the railroad companies. In 1868, the Lake Shore Railroad gave Rockefeller’s firm a going rate of one cent a gallon or forty-two cents a barrel. This represented a 71% discount from its listed rates in return for a promise to ship at least 60 carloads of oil daily. The deal therefore dra- matically increased Standard Oil’s efficiency overnight. Then, in 1872, Rockefeller joined the South Improvement Company – a deal which paved the way for him to increase Standard Oil’s efficiency once again by receiving rebates for shipping and drawbacks on oil his com- petitors shipped. When this deal became known, competitors convinced the Pennsylvania Legislature to revoke South Improvement’s charter, however, and no oil was shipped under this arrangement.

The second richest man in history, Andrew Carnegie, also dealt in resources. He controlled the most extensive integrated iron and steel operations ever owned by an individual in the United States. Carnegie was the first person to use the Bessemer process on an industrial scale. This process removes impurities from iron by oxidation. The Carnegie Steel Company was sold to J. P. Morgan in 1901, leading to the creation of the US Steel Corporation. Carnegie’s adjusted net worth was around $300 billion at the time of his death..


 

Rockefeller’s wealth, adjusted for the late 2000s, passed $1 billion in 1916

 

41 / 44


We all know how tempting it can be to have one too many chocolates or an extra slice of cake
even when we know it would be healthier not to. But what drives this craving for sweet treats?
Many scientists suggest that we are primed to desire sugar at an instinctive level as it plays
such a vital role in our survival. Our sense of taste has evolved to covet the molecules vital to
life like salt, fat and sugar.

When we eat food, the simple sugar glucose is absorbed from the intestines into the blood- stream and distributed to all cells of the body. Glucose is particularly important to the brain as it provides a major source of fuel to the billions of neuronal nerve cells. Neurons need a con- stant supply from the bloodstream as they don’t have the ability to store glucose themselves. As diabetics know, someone with low blood sugar can quickly lapse into a coma.

According to the NHS, added sugars shouldn’t make up more than 10% of the energy you get from food and drink each day. This is whether it comes from honey, fruit juice and jam, soft drinks, processed foods or table sugar. This works out at about 70 grams a day for men and 50 grams for women, although this can vary depending on your size, age and how active you are. Fifty grams of sugar is equivalent to 13 teaspoons of sugar a day, or two cans of fizzy drink, or eight chocolate biscuits.

When in the supermarket it’s worth remembering that produce is classed as high in sugar if it contains more than 15 grams in 100 grams and low in sugar if it has less than 5 grams per 100 grams.


 

Which of the following statements is best supported by the passage?

 

42 / 44


We all know how tempting it can be to have one too many chocolates or an extra slice of cake
even when we know it would be healthier not to. But what drives this craving for sweet treats?
Many scientists suggest that we are primed to desire sugar at an instinctive level as it plays
such a vital role in our survival. Our sense of taste has evolved to covet the molecules vital to
life like salt, fat and sugar.

When we eat food, the simple sugar glucose is absorbed from the intestines into the blood- stream and distributed to all cells of the body. Glucose is particularly important to the brain as it provides a major source of fuel to the billions of neuronal nerve cells. Neurons need a con- stant supply from the bloodstream as they don’t have the ability to store glucose themselves. As diabetics know, someone with low blood sugar can quickly lapse into a coma.

According to the NHS, added sugars shouldn’t make up more than 10% of the energy you get from food and drink each day. This is whether it comes from honey, fruit juice and jam, soft drinks, processed foods or table sugar. This works out at about 70 grams a day for men and 50 grams for women, although this can vary depending on your size, age and how active you are. Fifty grams of sugar is equivalent to 13 teaspoons of sugar a day, or two cans of fizzy drink, or eight chocolate biscuits.

When in the supermarket it’s worth remembering that produce is classed as high in sugar if it contains more than 15 grams in 100 grams and low in sugar if it has less than 5 grams per 100 grams.


 

Which of the following is not true?

 

43 / 44


We all know how tempting it can be to have one too many chocolates or an extra slice of cake
even when we know it would be healthier not to. But what drives this craving for sweet treats?
Many scientists suggest that we are primed to desire sugar at an instinctive level as it plays
such a vital role in our survival. Our sense of taste has evolved to covet the molecules vital to
life like salt, fat and sugar.

When we eat food, the simple sugar glucose is absorbed from the intestines into the blood- stream and distributed to all cells of the body. Glucose is particularly important to the brain as it provides a major source of fuel to the billions of neuronal nerve cells. Neurons need a con- stant supply from the bloodstream as they don’t have the ability to store glucose themselves. As diabetics know, someone with low blood sugar can quickly lapse into a coma.

According to the NHS, added sugars shouldn’t make up more than 10% of the energy you get from food and drink each day. This is whether it comes from honey, fruit juice and jam, soft drinks, processed foods or table sugar. This works out at about 70 grams a day for men and 50 grams for women, although this can vary depending on your size, age and how active you are. Fifty grams of sugar is equivalent to 13 teaspoons of sugar a day, or two cans of fizzy drink, or eight chocolate biscuits.

When in the supermarket it’s worth remembering that produce is classed as high in sugar if it contains more than 15 grams in 100 grams and low in sugar if it has less than 5 grams per 100 grams.


 

50 grams of added sugar:

 

44 / 44


We all know how tempting it can be to have one too many chocolates or an extra slice of cake
even when we know it would be healthier not to. But what drives this craving for sweet treats?
Many scientists suggest that we are primed to desire sugar at an instinctive level as it plays
such a vital role in our survival. Our sense of taste has evolved to covet the molecules vital to
life like salt, fat and sugar.

When we eat food, the simple sugar glucose is absorbed from the intestines into the blood- stream and distributed to all cells of the body. Glucose is particularly important to the brain as it provides a major source of fuel to the billions of neuronal nerve cells. Neurons need a con- stant supply from the bloodstream as they don’t have the ability to store glucose themselves. As diabetics know, someone with low blood sugar can quickly lapse into a coma.

According to the NHS, added sugars shouldn’t make up more than 10% of the energy you get from food and drink each day. This is whether it comes from honey, fruit juice and jam, soft drinks, processed foods or table sugar. This works out at about 70 grams a day for men and 50 grams for women, although this can vary depending on your size, age and how active you are. Fifty grams of sugar is equivalent to 13 teaspoons of sugar a day, or two cans of fizzy drink, or eight chocolate biscuits.

When in the supermarket it’s worth remembering that produce is classed as high in sugar if it contains more than 15 grams in 100 grams and low in sugar if it has less than 5 grams per 100 grams.


 

Which of the following can be a consequence of low blood sugar:

 

Your score is

The average score is 13%

0%